Human footprints through time are explored here via genetic clues. The nonrecombinant genetic pathways of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) enable us to trace population movement over time, with strong suggestion of who was where and when. In the near future paleogenomics, analysis of DNA from old bones, may be able to further substantiate the population distributions.
Articles under this menu trace the travels of humans from Africa to northwest Europe, a journey of 70 thousand years. There are various interpretations of the available data. This is mine. In particular, Y-DNA haplogroup I2a2a (I-M223) and mtDNA haplogroup U5b1 are the focus of this human odyssey. The ancestors of people with this genetic signature followed a similar trail directly to Europe from West Asia, arriving before 40 thousand years ago, likely among the peoples once called Cro-Magnon and now called European Early Modern Human.
A 2015 study sequenced the genome of a 13,000 year old Cro-Magnon from Switzerland. He belonged to Y-DNA Haplogroup I2a and mtDNA haplogroup U5b1h. He was a close match to my maternal and paternal ancestors of the same antiquity.